Abbreviations for disease states and physiologic states relevant to dosing
Term Meaning ADD Attention Deficit Disorder ASHD Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease BM Bowel movement BP Blood Pressure BPM Beats per Minute BS Blood Sugar Ca Cancer, carcinoma CHD Coronary Heart Disease CHF Congestive Heart Failure CVA Cerebral Vascular Accident, stroke DM Diabetes Mellitus GERD Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease GI Gastro-intestinal ERD End Stage Renal Disease HA Headache HBP, HTN High Blood Pressure, Hypertension HR Heart Rate IDD Insulin Dependent Diabetes MAP Mean Arterial Pressure N&V, N/V Nausea and Vomiting NIDD Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes PA wedge Pressure, wedge pressure Pulmonary artery wedge pressure SOB Shortness of Breath Temp Body Temperature URI Upper Respiratory Infection UTI Urinary Tract Infection
Abbreviations for Dosage Forms Found in Inscription, Subscription or Signa
Term Meaning amp. Ampule. A hermetically sealed glass vessel containing a sterile drug solution usually used parenteral administration. The ampule is broken and the solution drawn into a syringe under aseptic conditions just prior to administration. Ampules are always single dose units. Vials are glass containers with a rubber stopper through which a hypodermic needle can be inserted to remove its contents. Vials can be either single use or multiple use depending on whether a bacteriostatic preservative is present in the solution. cap. Capsule. A shell usually made of gelatin that contains the active ingredients in powder or liquid form. When the capsule is swallowed, the gelatin dissolves in the acid environment of the stomach releasing the material inside. chart. A divided powder, powder in a paper. The drug or drug mixture is wrapped in folded paper. The patient unfolds the paper and transfers the contents to a tablespoon or a glass and dissolves the contents in water. This solution is swallowed and washed down with water. Archaic dosage form. cr., crm. Cream. A semisolid preparation containing drug intended for application to body surfaces like the skin. Creams are heterogenous systems (an oil in water mixture) whose continuous phase is either aqueous or water soluble. Creams absorb into the skin leaving little oily residue. elix. Elixir. An oral solution containing drug, water, and some alcohol. When the active ingredients are dissolved exclusively in alcohol the dosage form is called a Spirit. emul. Emulsion. A liquid, heterogenous dosage form in which a liquid oil is usually dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase. Usually the drug is dissolved in the internal oil phase. When an emulsion is used topically it is frequently called a lotion. (Topical lotions may also be called suspensions) Liq. A solution Lot. A lotion. pulv., A bulk powder. Applied directly to the skin from the container. pulvis sol. Solution. A solution of drug usually in water. May be taken by mouth or applied to skin depending on indication. supp., Suppository. Firm semisolid dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into sup., a particular body opening. The semisolid vehicle melts at body temperature suppos releasing the incorporated drug into the local body fluids. Rectal and vaginal suppositories are most common. susp. Suspension. A liquid, heterogenous dosage form in which a solid is dispersed in the liquid. Usually the drug is not dissolved in the dosage form. When the suspension is used topically it is frequently called a lotion. syr. Syrup. A solution that is sweet and highly viscous. tab. Tablet. A compressed tablet of drug and other excipients which can only be manufactured on an industrial scale. Tablets are designed to break up into fragments when they enter the stomach or other body fluid allowing the drug to come into contact with the fluid, and dissolve. Tablets are not pills. Pills are an older type of preparation not commonly used anymore, and have a round shape (exception - colchicine is dispensed as pills). A Sublingual Tablet (tab SL. or SL) is designed to be dissolved under the tongue. A sublingually administered drug is intended to be absorbed across the oral mucosa avoiding gastrointestinal-hepatic degradation prior to entry into general circulation (Example Nitroglycerine Sublingual Tablet). Sublingual tablets should not be swallowed. tinc., Tincture. A solution containing a lot of alcohol, although other solvents may tr., be present. Tinctures usually contain drug at high concentrations. tinct. ung, Ointment. A semisolid preparation containing drug intended for application to unguetum, body surfaces like the skin. Ointments unlike creams are continuous oil based oint. systems. Ointments generally leave an oily residue on the applied surface for a longer time than creams.
Abbreviations Related to the Directions for the Pharmacist - The Subscription Verbs
disp. Dispense. Provide to the patient. div. # Divide. The formula refers to the total amount to be made. Divide the formula into the specified number of dosage units. d.t.d. # Give such doses. The formula refers to a single dose. Prepare and dispense a specified number of doses. ex. aqua in water f., ft. Make. Prepare M Mix the contents of the formula N.B. Note Well!!! Pay attention to this. No., # Number of units to be prepared or dispensed. S.A., According to the art. A vague phrase meaning roughly "use your skill and Secundum judgement" artem tal. dos. such doses
Abbreviations used in the directions to the patient or instructions to care providers - The Signa
Term Meaning Sig. write the following directions on the label ad up to, don't confuse with right ear (a.d.) appl. apply c, cum with dil. dilute, for example: dil. 5 ml in 6 oz. OJ (orange juice) D/C, D.C. Discontinue e.m.p., ut as directed, in the manner prescribed dict, u.d. et and NMT not more than NPO Nothing by Mouth. The patient is to receive nothing orally non rep, do not repeat, (also, no refills when not in Sig.) N.R. rep repeat, (also, refill when not in Sig.) s, sine, s without
Abbreviations frequently used in the Prescription Formula - The Inscription
Term Meaning aa., or aa of each. Used when two or more ingredients are present in the same amount. They are listed sequentially with the symbol placed next to the last item of the group which it refers. ad to, up to. don't confuse with a.d. - right ear Agit. Shake. Alb. White. ASA aspirin. an analgesic. aq., aqua. water, drinking water. Never used in making prescriptions. aq. dest. distilled water, deionized water used in prescriptions. Prepared by distillation. aq. pur. purified water USP, An official deionized water used in prescription compounding. q.s. a sufficient quantity. Calculate and add the appropriate quantity to make the prescription. Example: the amount of lactose needed to fill capsules. q.s. ad a sufficient quantity up to. Add sufficient quantity to achieve a specified total weight or volume. Example: amount of water needed to make 240 ml of total solution. aa q.s. ad a sufficient quantity of each up to. Used when more than one substance is to be added in equal quantities to achieve a specified total weight or volume. For example calculate the amount of Lanolin and Petrolatum to make 60 g of ointment. D5W Dextrose Injection USP, a sterile isotonic IV Fluid (5% dextrose in water) HC Hydrocortisone, a steroid hormone inj. Injection, indicating that the injection dosage form is to be used. MS Morphine Sulfate. A narcotic analgesic NF Natural Formulary, Indicates the ingredient should conform standards prescribed in the official NF compendium NS, N.S. Sodium Chloride Solution USP, a sterile, isotonic IV fluid (0.9% NaCl in Water) 1/2NS 0.45% Sodium Chloride for Injection, a sterile IV fluid NTG Nitroglycerine, a drug to treat angina pectoris, and other cardiovascular disturbances TPN Total Parental Nutrition, an intravenous feeding fluid containing carbohydrates, amino acids, electrolytes, and sometimes lipids. USP United States Pharmacopeia, Indicates the ingredient should conform standards prescribed in the official USP compendium.
Units of Measure used in the Inscription-Subscription1
cc., cc cubic centimeter, USP states 1 cc is equivalent to 1 ml fl, fld. specifies that the measure is a fluid measure g., Gm. Gram, NB don't confuse with gr. gr., gr Grain, NB don't confuse with g. gtt. Drop, In general not a rigidly standardized measure. Modern preparations are dispensed with the calibrated dropper included with the manufactured product. Minum, NB Don't confuse with ml mcg., mcg Microgram, NB don't confuse with mg. mEq Milliequivalent mg., mg Milligram, NB don't confuse with mcg ml., mL. Milliliter, USP states that 1 cc is equivalent to 1 ml, NB, don't confuse with minum. mOsm, mOsmol Milliosmole O. Apothecary pint oz. ounce parts Some formulas indicate the ratio of ingredient quantities to each other. In a formula given in terms of parts by weight, any unit of weight may be used, but it must be applied to all components. In a formula given in parts by volume, any unit of volume may be used, provide that all components have the same units. Ratio Ratio strength is a way of representing the concentration of a formula Strength component. It is denoted in terms of total amount of solution or mixture that contains one unit of solute. A 1:25 solution of cinnamon oil means that 1 ml of cinnamon oil is contained in each 25 ml of solution. N.B. the second number in the ratio does not describe the quantity of solvent, but the total quantity of solution. If the solute is a liquid the solution is assumed to be a v/v mixture. For solid solutes its assumed to be a w/v mixture. When the denominator of the ratio is 100, the concentration is denoted as Percentage Strength. ss., ss one half tbl. tablespoonful, a household measure, nominal value 15 ml. tsp. teaspoonful, a household measure, nominal value, 5 ml U, u, I.U. Unit, International Unit. potency of many antibiotics and endocrine preparations are expressed in terms of official USP units. These units are specific for each substance and determined by an official USP biological activity test 1. NB. Sometimes the unit abbreviations for quantities are absent in the formula. When absent, units for weight are presumed to be gram, g, and for volume presumed to be milliliter, mL
Abbreviations used in the directions to the patient or instructions to care providers concerning Dose and Dosing Frequency - The Signa
Term Meaning ad lib., prn use when or as needed. Ex. 1 cap hs prn sleep a. before a.c. before meals. Take before meals. Usually used in conjunction with q.d., tid etc. a.m. morning, before midday h. hour d. day q. every q4h every 4 hours, Also specified by the degree symbol. Ex. q 4deg. q.d. every day, take one dose a day q.o.d. every other day, Take one dose every other day bid twice a day, Take one dose twice a day. N.B. does not mean every 12 hours. Loosely means morning and evening. tid three times a day, NB. Take one dose three times a day. N.B. does not mean very 8 hours. Loosely means morning, evening, and night. qid four times a day. NB. Take one dose four times a day. N.B. does not mean every 6 hours. Loosely means morning, afternoon, evening, and night. t.i.w. three times a week, Take a dose three times a week. For example M, W, F h.s. at bed time. Take at bedtime ATC around the clock, Doses administered at equal time intervals. Ex: q. 6 h. ATC. m2, M2 square meter BSA body surface area p. after p.c. after meals. Take after meals. Usually used in conjunction with q.d., bid, tid etc. p.m. evening, afternoon, after midday noct. night STAT immediately, give at once s.o.s. if there is need. Administer again if required. Example: MS 2 mg IV STAT and q 30 min s.o.s. bucking ventilator
Abbreviations used to indicate Route of Administration or Administration Site1.
Term Meaning a.d. right ear, (the dexter ear) a.s. left ear, (the sinister ear) a.u. both ears Aur ear, ears D. Right IA intraarterially, inject into artery ID intradermal, inject into skin IM intramuscular, inject into muscle IV intravenous, inject or infuse into vein, rate specified. For intravenous fluid therapy IV also refers to the infusion fluid. IV bottles are consecutively numbered. Ex: IV #10 NS 1000 mL @ 125 cc/h, IV #11 D5W 1000 mL @ 125/hr IMP, IV bolus intravenous push, a rapid injection into vein IVPB intravenous piggy back. infuse solution into primary intravenous infusion, rate specified Ex: Ampicillin 250 mg IVPB over 30 min q 6 h KVO keep vein open. A slow infusion. The rate is set by institution policy or specified used to maintain an intravenous catheter patent. via Hep Loc Inject through heparin lock. A small indwelling intravenous cannula filled with a dilute heparin solution to maintain patency. After injection, the heparin lock needs to be flushed and refilled with a dilute heparin solution. Ocul eye o.d. right eye (the dexter eye) in the right eye o.l., o.s. left eye, (the sinister eye) in the left eye o.u. both eyes, in each eye p.o., per os by mouth, take orally R, pro rect. rectal S. left SL sublingual, Place under tongue and allow to dissolve subq., s.c. subcutaneously, inject below the skin top topically, apply locally to affected area vag. vaginally 1. NB. The oral route is always assumed if no route is specified for a drugs which can be administered orally. If it is not possible to give the drug orally, (i.e. NPO), the alternative route must be explicitly specified by the prescriber.THE ANATOMY OF A PRESCRIPTION
CHECKING THE DEA NUMBER
* All physician DEA bumbers begin with TWO LETTERS.
* The FIRST LETTER is always A or B.
* The SECOND LETTER is the first letter of the physicians LAST NAME.
* Add digits 1, 3, 5
* Add digits 2, 4, 6 and multiply by 2.
* Add the two totals.
* The LAST digit of the sum is the same as the last digit of the DEA number
Take DEA # AH0354213 from Dr. Alfred K. Hall Is the 1st letter A or B? Yes, it's A Does the 2nd letter the same as 1st letter of the Yes, it's H physician's last name? Add 1st, 3rd and 5th digit: 0 + 5 + 2 = 7 Add 2nd, 4th and 6th digits and multiply by two (3 + 4 + 1) x 2 = 16 Add the two totals 7 + 16 = 23 Is the last digit of the sum the same as the last digit of Yes the DEA #